عنوان مقاله [English]
The economic valuation of environmental resources is a step in the direction of controlling and preventing the destruction of places and environmental species. Among environmental resources, forest areas play a very important role in increasing human well-being. On the other hand, forest areas provide products such as fodder and medicinal plants and services such as carbon sequestration, oxygen production, soil and water protection. On the other hand, recreational uses such as walking and mountain climbing are used and they have existential and heritage values. The aim of the current research is to estimate the economic value of recreational services as well as the conservation value and the use value of Birk Forest Park. The necessary information for valuing recreational services has been obtained by completing a two-dimensional double-choice questionnaire online, and the necessary information for consumption values has been obtained by surveying and completing the questionnaire. Probit model has been used to measure people's willingness to pay. Based on the results of the research, about 68% of the surveyed people are willing to pay for the recreational use of the Birak forest area, and the willingness to pay for recreational and conservation use is 8850, respectively. Estimated at 4385 Tomans. The total value of its annual recreational use was estimated at 1397 million Rials. Also, the annual direct and indirect use value of the studied area is equal to 187,247 million rials. The results of the probit model show that the variables of income, education, gender have a positive effect and the variable of age has a negative effect on willingness to pay.
Ecosystems and natural resources are the main assets of ecotourism. One of the main uses of these resources is recreational use, for which forest areas have received a lot of attention. And the importance of these areas is expressed using the economic valuation of their services and functions. To strengthen the protection, such as the recreational use of these areas. According to economists and ecologists, valuing natural resources and environmental systems makes people understand the environmental benefits, providing a connection between economic policies and natural incomes, and preventing the excessive destruction of natural resources. (Mehdizadeh, 2018) It pays for the services that ecosystems create. Some of these goods and services are included in the market goods group because they can be traded in the market and these goods have a specific price and their supply and demand can be seen. The other part of these goods and services are included in the non-market goods group because they cannot be traded in the market and also have no price, but they have a very high value. The economic value of the entire forest area is considered as an alternative to the traditional evaluation of environmental goods. which are divided into two categories of use value and non-use value. The use value of environmental resources is also divided into two groups of consumption value (wood, paper, recreation) and non-use value (carbon absorption and decomposition). The non-use value includes the existential value, the intrinsic value of a natural resource, or the value that people have only to recognize the existence of a natural resource. Even if they never see or use it. The heritage value or the value of future generations is the benefit resulting from people's awareness of maintaining a natural resource for future generations, and the choice value is an indicator of the degree of people's preference to preserve a natural resource against the possible use of people in the future. In other words, existential value as the willingness of society members to pay for the protection of a natural resource, heritage value as the willingness to pay to preserve the natural resource for the benefit of future generations, and choice value as the willingness to pay for the protection of the natural resource for opportunities and activities. Possible future consumption is defined. (Safaei, 2013) In addition to recreational use, forest areas and pastures also have other services such as wood and fodder production. According to the results of various researches, about 30% of the value of pastures is related to economic issues such as fodder production, production of medicinal and industrial plants, and honey production, while environmental functions account for about 70% of the value of pastures (Yegane, 2012). Therefore, preserving, revitalizing, developing and exploiting pastures is more important from the point of view of fodder production and livestock breeding, from an environmental point of view (Yegane et al., 1396; Bostan et al., 1397). The economic development of the country is influenced by the development of the natural resources and agriculture sectors, and the development of the natural resources sector is also possible through production. Determining the economic value of pasture and the share of main and secondary products in it can guide and help managers in improving the planning and optimal management of pastures (Heshmat al-Waezin et al., 2009).
In the current research, to determine the consumption value of the required information, the necessary information was obtained by surveying and completing the questionnaire, as well as the recreational value and the protection value of Birak forest area, the necessary data statistics were collected by completing 112 questionnaires online in the year 1400. In order to measure the respondents' willingness to pay, conditional valuation method and two-dimensional double questionnaire were used. This method requires determining and choosing one more offer than the initial offer. that the offer of a higher amount is given as a yes answer and a less offer is given as a no answer. The questionnaire consists of two parts, the first part includes socio-economic characteristics and the second part includes questions related to the respondents' willingness to pay, and in this part, the three suggested prices are 10,000, 20,000 and 5,000 Tomans as questions related to It was also expressed. The proposed amount (10,000 Tomans) was asked in this way. that the forest area of Birk has provided an opportunity to travel and have fun. Are you willing to pay 10,000 Tomans as an entrance fee to use this area? In case of a positive answer, a higher proposed amount (20,000 Tomans) will be asked, and in case of a negative answer, a lower proposed amount (5,000 Tomans) will be asked. After collecting data, statistics and information were analyzed. And then, using econometric models, recreational value and conservation value were estimated. Excel and Stata software were used for statistical analysis of variables.