نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه علوم پایه، دانشگاه فرهنگیان، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
With the advancement of agricultural biotechnology, many genetically modified crops have been mass-produced and commercialized to meet the needs of the world's growing population. Following the rapid commercialization of transgenic products each year worldwide, concerns about the biosafety of these products; Potential risks to human health, and environmental concerns have been raised.
The global debate over genetically engineered products (transgenic products) has now shifted its focus from whether or not it should be used to safe use. As most transgenic crops are approved for commercial cultivation, there is growing concern about their potential impact and risk to human health, and in particular to the environment. Also, there is an imminent risk of cross-fertilization, which leads to contamination of normal germplasm and thus the risk of biodiversity disruption.
Transgenic crops are one of the noblest inventions of the 21st century through genetic engineering by modifying the genetic structure of crops to enrich them with one or more important economic characteristics such as improving quality traits, increasing herbicide tolerance and stress resistance. Various biological and non-biological have been developed. These products have helped humans to meet the various challenges posed by population growth; but the development of these products may pose a serious threat to the environment.
Environmental safety research has introduced potential risks associated with specific transgenic compounds; non-target transgenic streams within and between species and the persistence and consequences of transgenics in unwanted hosts. Resistance management strategies for insect and pesticide-resistant transgenics have also been studied. Also, food biosafety research has focused on the toxicity and allergenicity of transgenic products. Discussing possible innovations or strategies to reduce the effects of technological interventions and developing effective strategies for the conservation and conservation of biological resources is an important goal that this article seeks to challenge.
In the present review article, data collection was using the keywords ecological, transgenic, safety, and risk done with the help of articles from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct information sources.
The articles used are from 1987 to 2022. Out of 114 reviewed articles, 75 articles were deleted and the information of the remaining 39 articles was used in writing this article. Articles that were not related to the purpose of writing the article were removed from further study.
Agriculture is the main and unique source of nutrition in the world, but due to traditional cultivation methods, many environmental issues such as drinking water pollution, soil degradation, erosion and biodiversity reduction can be solved almost by genetic modification. But, every innovation in food production has been associated with a set of potential risks. These range from increased pesticide exposure in conventional agriculture to exposure to more pathogens in organic farming. New genes can have numerous unexpected effects on the ecology, physiology, and nutritional value of products.
In biotechnology risk assessment, potential effects on environmental and human health are considered. The ecological concerns currently being discussed include increased invasion (a problem in agriculture where uncollected seeds germinate from last year's crop and grow in the current crop), intra-species and interspecific hybridization, the possibility of sensitization, and a change in material taste. Dietary quality changes, toxicity, carcinogenicity, decreased immunity, favorable conditions for the growth of emerging bacteria and viruses, and horizontal gene transfer (transfer of genetic material between cells or organisms of unrelated species such as bacteria and viruses and production of new strains Pathogenesis, development of antibiotic-resistant genes, reactivation of inactive pathogenic viruses, damage to non-target organisms, biodiversity loss, and resistance management. Risk management includes strategic techniques to reduce the adverse effects of transgenic and related products on consumers or the environment, as well as to reduce the chances of developing resistance in the target pest population. Several tactics, such as the use of alternative or mixed insecticides, can be used in a variety of ways to effectively minimize the risk of insecticide resistance in insects. These techniques are also useful in preventing the problem of regeneration in insects. Similarly, various techniques have been used to minimize or prevent the risk of herbicide-resistant weeds and weed development. Spinning herbicides or using them in combination effectively reduces the chances of herbicide resistance in weeds. Crop rotation is another technique that can be used to reduce this risk. In fact, in the past, transgenic foods focused on increasing yields and other agricultural properties, which were primarily beneficial to agricultural companies and economically viable. But the new generation of transgenic foods emphasizes the health benefits of the consumer, which is the right policy to promote environmental health.
Risk assessment of transgenic crops identifies the adverse effects of transgenic crops or derived products on non-target organisms and/or the environment, which includes several coordinated steps such as risk identification and classification. The first and most important step is to identify the risk, including identifying potential hazards or hazards to the target population or the environment if transgenic and related products are used. This is followed by a general characterization of the risk, ie it’s direct or indirect impact, chronic or acute, immediate or delayed, and so on. Finally, risk classification is performed, which includes the grouping of identified and well-defined risks into different categories. Negative effects of the transgenic crop on health include adverse effects on target and non-target populations, development of resistance or regeneration in the target population of pest/pathogen, transgenic flow in other species, etc.
The main purpose of this study is to introduce the bio-environmental safety aspects of transgenic plants. Modern advances in biotechnology have revolutionized the way of life, especially in meeting nutritional needs, fodder, fiber, and fuel using transgenic products. However, a group of social activists and environmentalists have always opposed the use of transgenic products because of their unprecedented effects on ecosystems and human health. Therefore, a concerted effort should be made to identify credible concerns and risks and to provide reliable and useful information to the public, and scientists should work to resolve ambiguities about transgenic products and foods. Previously, transgenic foods focused on increasing yields and other agricultural properties, which primarily benefited agricultural companies and farmers. The new generation of transgenic foods emphasizes the health benefits of the consumer. It is only with these new products that the general public will accept the use of a genetic modification of foods, and this is where the overlap of nutrition, ecology, and plant biotechnology will become more apparent.