نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه بیرجند، بیرجند، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی محیط زیست دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست دانشگاه بیرجند بیرجند خراسان جنوبی
3 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه بیرجند
4 آموزش محیط زیست، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران
5 رئیس گروه برنامهریزی و مدیریت تالابها، دفتر حفاظت و احیاء تالابها، سازمان حفاظت محیط زیست، تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Wetlands are unique aquatic ecosystems that have rich biodiversity and provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, water filtering, and sediment trapping. They are also considered as shelters for a wide range of animal species, especially migratory birds. Today, human interventions, including excessive exploitation of underground water in order to supply drinking, agricultural and industrial water and the introduction of human pollution (such as sewage and urban and industrial waste) along with natural processes such as drought, these ecosystems threatens.which has led to changing the hydrology of the wetland, reducing the quality of soil and water, changing the vegetation, animal and microbial communities of the bottom of the bed, and disrupting the function and ecosystem services of the wetlands. On the other hand, the focus on the management and protection of dry wetlands is less than that of temperate wetlands mainly due to their ecological, edaphic and hydrogeological characteristics. The complex characteristics of these wetlands have caused small changes in their hydrological regime to lead to major changes in groundwater, soil characteristics, vegetation, etc.
The Ramsar Convention is the most important international initiative for the protection of wetlands. According to the classification of the Ramsar Convention, the Keji Namakzar Wetland of Nehbandan is included in the Mandabi wetlands. Successful protection of wetlands relies on the investment of local and regional governments as well as international cooperation. The lack of awareness of the values of wetlands and the subsequent low priority in the decision-making process has led to destruction and unknown social costs. Kaji Namakzar Nahbandan wetland is a water spot in the heart of the desert with an area of more than 20 square kilometers, located in the Kaji Namakzar Nahbandan Wildlife Sanctuary in South Khorasan province and Nehbandan city. This wetland area is the only national wetland of the province, and in fact, it is a vast salt marsh, which, due to its low elevation compared to the surrounding areas, collects surface water like a flowing sponge, and due to the high salinity of its soil, it becomes a lake covered with salt and turned white. The purpose of this study is to develop a multi-scenario framework for integrated ecological management of Kaji wetland and provide guidelines and policies related to wetland protection, controlling and reducing harmful effects and responding to the needs of local communities, which are mostly 1. Knowing of wetland ecosystem, 2. Analysis of stakeholders, 3. Knowing the values and services of the wetland ecosystem, 4. Recognizing threats and problems, 5. Formulating vision and strategic goals, 6. Presentation of management measures (executive), and finally 7. The monitoring program is presented in three sections: biodiversity, hydrological and stabilization of wetland lands.
Considering that the ecological management approach is a collaborative project, this research consists of different parts of field surveys, collaborative workshops, library studies and specialized analyses. First, the wetland ecosystem was fully identified with field surveys and existing studies. The method used in order to manage the ecosystem of Kaji Namakzar Nahbandan wetland is the cascade system of strategic planning. This approach seeks to create a completely logical connection from whole to component and hierarchy between the main components of strategic planning and operational and executive planning. The waterfall approach is a linear model, which starts with the identification of the beneficiaries of a project and their needs, and at each stage, it uses the output of the previous stage as an input for the new stage and falls like a waterfall.
This management plan has been prepared based on the results of educational and advisory workshops and with the participation of representatives of major relevant local and provincial groups. After carrying out the basic biological studies of the region and mutual recognition of the collaborative part of the study, three working groups for biodiversity, hydrological and land stabilization management were determined as working groups based on the type of activities. 4 evaluation meetings were organized in the future stages and the activities of all working groups were reviewed and revised. Finally, the management plan for the Kaji wetland ecosystem in two short-term and long-term periods is formulated based on the hierarchical cascade approach, and finally, executive measures to deal with serious threats and urgent needs in the short-term and operational plans in the long-term are put on the agenda of the stakeholders.
According to the mentioned cases, it should be noted that wetlands should be managed according to ecosystems and communities that are closely related to each other. First, all the beneficiaries of the wetland should be identified and detailed operational plans should be selected according to these beneficiaries and the ecosystems around the wetland. There are mainly residential and agricultural areas near the Kaji Namakzar wetland of Nehbandan. Therefore, management plans should be developed based on this relationship, and executive measures should be implemented in an integrated manner, taking into account all the wetland's stakeholders. The integrated management plan of Nahbandan's Kaji Namakzar wetland is important not only for the region but also for South Khorasan province and is a pioneer in the field of ecological management. On the other hand, Kaji wetland is a very important ecosystem due to its regional and local use and global advantages such as the wintering place of migratory birds and feeding of some endangered species. Therefore, it is very important to protect it. In this research, the integrated management plan of Kaji Wetland was investigated in the two axes of biodiversity and water and soil. The most important goals investigated in this research are: protection of wetland water resources and their optimal and sustainable use, compromise with the dry climate including increasing water infiltration and reducing evaporation in the wetland area, protecting and preventing soil erosion and maintaining its fertility, determining and improving land use in the region, reducing dust production, improving the water quality of the wetland, reducing water and soil pollution, protecting and restoring biodiversity and habitat, and physical protection of the wetland. The results showed that an integrated bio-ecological approach to protect the Kaji wetland and the interests of all stakeholders is inevitable and should be implemented as soon as possible.