نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دکتری، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران
2 Ph.D. student, Department of Sociology of Development, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. student, Department of Sociology of Development, Islamic Azad University, Khalkhal Branch, Ardabil, Iran
عنوان مقاله [English]
In Ardabil, unplanned migration from villages, urban development, and the uncontrolled growth of informal and unconventional settlements in or near the city have become the most critical issues.
Informal settlements, which have emerged as thirteen neighborhoods in the city, occupy a large part of the population and area of the town, and this justifies the need to pay attention to the organization of informal settlements in Ardabil. In particular, the relative correlation of this social phenomenon with social harms such as (divorce, addiction, unemployment of out-of-school children, and working children) has made it necessary to identify and plan purposefully to overcome these bottlenecks. Empowerment of these neighborhoods requires the participatory action of all neighborhood citizens to achieve control and influence on the factors that determine the quality of life in that neighborhood, which is one of the essential goals in the sustainable development of communities. Therefore, according to the objectives of the research, the following hypotheses are raised:
1- Is there a significant relationship between local community capital (formal and informal communication networks of neighborhoods, cooperation, trust, participation) and empowerment of informal settlements in Ardabil?
2- Is there a significant relationship between local community capital and physical empowerment of informal settlements in Ardabil?
3- Is there a significant relationship between the dimensions of local community capital and social empowerment of informal settlements in Ardabil?
4- Is there a significant relationship between local community capital and economic empowerment of informal settlements in Ardabil?
5- Is there a significant relationship between local community capital and environmental empowerment of informal settlements in Ardabil?
Marginalities and informal settlements The Achilles heel of new urban management, especially in, is one of the main challenges of sustainable urbanization (Naqdi, 1392: 35). Provide marginalization. In this regard, liberal theorists believe that these places should be left alone so that invisible market groups can find a solution for them. This view does not address the origins and formation of these settlements. It considers the phenomenon of marginalization as one of the requirements of industrial society (Soltani, 1382: 42), and its supporters, until the early 1923s, believed that informal settlements are a transitional phenomenon that could be overcome by economic development.
UN Informal Settlements, The radical view of the strategic planning approach was to empower marginalized neighborhoods. And the analysis of the growth of informal communities is not possible outside the study of the processes of the capitalist system (Irandoost and Sarrafi, 1300: 66). In the late 1903s, an empowerment strategy was introduced, emphasizing the core content of these settlements, which is a man and his activities. The drafting of the empowerment strategy and its adoption at the UN General Assembly was a significant revolution in studying marginalization and the paradigms of urban studies (Kritzman, 1992: 321). Empowerment strategy is the most appropriate solution to organizing marginalization (Exchange, 1302: 221), Which seeks to improve the living conditions of poor communities and gives people the opportunity to enhance their place of residence according to their needs (Gharkhloo and Mireh, 1306: 112). Thus, the empowerment strategy and physical-environmental improvement pay special attention to the human aspects of informal settlements. With more emphasis on eliminating the incapacities and disabilities of individuals in mental and physical dimensions, it seeks to expand the poor's abilities to "participate, negotiate, influence and take responsibility for the institutions that affect their lives."
Comparing the approach and principles of empowerment with previous approaches related to the issue of marginalization indicates that the empowerment approach offers different paradigmatic foundations in terms of epistemology, ontology and methodology in dealing with the issue of marginalization because of the specific orientation, specific perspective and ideology. Using a systemic approach involving physical-environmental, socio-cultural, economic, and urban management indicators in establishing social justice, emphasizing the participation of neighborhood residents in neighborhood decisions, formulating policies based on reducing inequality in access to urban services, adopting an approach Humanism in solving the problems of marginalized neighborhoods has led to the above approach as a reaction against one-dimensional systems and paradigms in marginalized studies.
The empowerment strategy emphasizes the mobilization of all potential facilities and resources and all factors to create housing and improve the living conditions of poor communities and gives people the opportunity to enhance their homes and living conditions according to their priorities and needs. Upgrading and empowering local communities is a new approach to solving the urban poverty problem in which building engineering is no longer the only solution. However, it can be a subset of social engineering with the support and facilitation of the public sector, local NGOs, and active participation (Hadizadeh Bazaz, 2003: 37). Empowerment policies are based on the principles of delegation of decision-making and based on the fact that decisions related to investment in domestic economic, social and material development resources should be at the lowest level of efficiency and the lowest level of efficiency for most promotion activities. And the effectiveness of the social level is local and neighborhood (Irandoost: 1388: 135). Concerning the concept of empowerment, many recent texts, especially those related to the World Bank, refer to the idea of empowerment, which generally refers to the expansion of freedom in the field of choice and action. This freedom is severely restricted for the poor society by their lack of power and weakness (politically-civilly), especially in their relationship with the government and the market. Empowerment means increasing the opportunities and assets of the poor to participate in negotiations, express opinions, control, and maintain ties with the responsible institutions that are influential in their lives. The World Bank defines key elements in empowerment, access to information, participation and engagement, accountability, and local organizational capacity. From this perspective, given that poverty is multidimensional, the poor need a level of assets and facilities at the individual level (health, education, housing) and at the general level (ability to organize) to launch "collective work" to solve their problems. (Potter and Evans, 231: 1384).
In empowerment, the participation of poor individuals and groups in politics and decision-making in urban society is organic. A partnership is formed based on a bilateral dialogue, and the citizen, by gaining identity through this dialogue, also identifies their habitat and causes it to enter the public sphere.
The present study is a descriptive survey. To formulate the theoretical framework of the research, additional techniques such as library and documentary studies have been used. The statistical population of the present study is all citizens aged 16-65 years old living in the thirteen neighborhoods of Ardabil, which includes districts 3 and 4 of the municipality. A selected sample of a researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect information.
In this study, a researcher-made questionnaire and a constructive interview have been used to assess and analyze the identity of urban neighborhoods by emphasizing the sense of belonging to the place in the thirteen neighborhoods of Ardabil.
The research hypotheses show a significant relationship between the dimensions of local community capital (formal and informal communication networks of neighborhoods, cooperation, trust, participation) and empowerment of informal settlements socially, economically, physically, and environmentally. There is. Also, a regression study of research variables showed that 64% of changes in local community capital in empowering informal settlements in Ardabil could be explained and predicted. Therefore, the following practical suggestions in social strategies, economic strategies, physical strategies, environmental strategies, and management strategies can be a way out of the problem and facilitate and participate in the study of real-world empowerment. To be. Therefore, according to the results, the following suggestions are presented.
1- Construction of educational-health space (lack of kindergarten, high school, and vocational school in the suburbs)
2- Strengthening non-governmental institutions, in addition to helping to create newer institutions to promote welfare programs and services (social empowerment)
3- The movement of government institutions to build trust, increase the willingness to participate and, as a result, promote social capital.
4- Strengthening the security of housing by issuing a formal ownership document without going through the usual administrative processes along with financial facilities for the owners of these neighborhoods
5- Granting financial facilities in case of inefficiency of the policy of legalizing property rights and issuing an official ownership document;
6- Removing legal barriers and helping to benefit from financial facilities, of course, by emphasizing the return of these resources, not gratuitous and continuous aid that leads to continued dependence;
7- Preventing the continuation of the process of illegal and unlicensed constructions by urban management organizations and municipalities
8- Creating the ground for benefiting from low-interest loans and a chain guarantee for the renovation of worn-out structures and the construction of housing according to standard urban planning regulations.
9- Institutionalizing a policy based on interaction and action-oriented cooperation with informal non-governmental organizations such as religious delegations and the neighborhood level to preserve the environment.