نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
گروه آموزشی جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
عنوان مقاله [English]
The increase in the urban population, the expansion of industries, and as a result, the diversity of activities and population, and as a result of the rapid physical transformations of the city, have changed the previous equations governing the spatial organization of cities, and the city is faced with new and frequent issues and problems in the environmental, social, economic and physical fields. unknown has been encountered. Issues that lead to the uncontrollable development of urban areas, the creation of new settlements, the reduction of the level of human welfare, unplanned constructions, reaching the suburbs and the occurrence of many urban problems. It is in different dimensions. In this regard, the logical and practical tools and solutions of many countries to overcome the problems and problems of cities and urban areas and improve their biological and physical conditions; Conducting urban studies and preparing and implementing urban development plans.
Thinking about urban planning (in its current form) started with mere theorizing and idealism from the beginning of the 19th century. With the beginning of the 20th century, planning was inclined to concrete and detailed issues, and attention to general and everyday issues such as health, transportation, urban form, etc., took the place of general ideas. With the outbreak of the Second World War and the comprehensive destruction of cities, urban development changes from a one-dimensional to a multi-dimensional perspective, and the issue of urban development is addressed more comprehensively. In Iran, the process of preparing urban development plans (the dominant pattern of comprehensive and detailed plans) has started since the 1340s. After about six decades of the preparation of these plans, with the aim of preventing the uneven and abnormal development of cities and providing a strategy to regulate urban development, the aforementioned plans could not fully achieve their goals. Also, the evaluation process as a management tool in order to achieve the goals and success of urban development plans has not found the proper and necessary place in the planning system. In this regard, the city of Ardabil is not an exception to the rule, and it seems that the plans and goals of the comprehensive plan of the city of Ardabil have not been realized. in the master plan of Ardabil city; The goals, strategies and policies suitable for the macro development vision of Ardabil city "Progressive City, Green City" have been explained and proposed. In this research, the environmental goals and the degree of realization of these aspects are specifically discussed.
The research method used in this research is mixed or combined (quantitative and qualitative). In this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods with sequential exploratory model were used. First, qualitative data was collected and analyzed, then quantitative data (as a supplementary plan) was collected and analyzed in the second stage. Finally, both qualitative and quantitative analysis have been interpreted at the same time. The statistical population of this research is managers, officials and experts in the field of urban planning and management, as well as academic elites. It should be noted that the field investigation and observation of the results of the comprehensive plan of Ardabil city, interviews with officials and managers of the area of Ardabil urban development plans, questioning of urban experts and academic elites; The data collection methods of the present research are analyzed using the one-sample T-test in the form of SPSS software.
Evaluation plays a key role in the success of urban development projects. It is very important to evaluate the feasibility of plans in the field of planning. Despite the fact that there is no standard approach and method for developing a suitable evaluation framework; But in the field of evaluating the feasibility of plans, there is a comprehensive agreement between planners and academics that the mentioned matter is the key solution to determine the success and responsiveness of the plans. Because the lack of success in the realization of plans has long been considered as an important and significant obstacle in achieving an effective planning.
Considering the importance of evaluating urban development plans, the aim of this research is to evaluate the degree of realization of the environmental proposals of the comprehensive urban plan of Ardabil. The results obtained from document reviews, field observations, interviews and experts' questionnaires show that the comprehensive urban plan of Ardabil has not been successful.
Considering the environmental proposals of the master plan and their progress up to the horizon of the plan (1400), it can be concluded that the degree of realization of the environmental proposals of the master plan of Ardabil city was average. Despite the fact that 15 years have passed since the preparation and approval of the comprehensive plan of Ardabil city, and in fact the horizon of the plan has ended, but still the environmental proposals have not been realized. Even the short-term proposals that were defined for one or two years have not been realized after 15 years.
Also, the proposals presented for a congregation were less than 550 thousand people (including the area of influence, 600 thousand people), while the current population of Ardabil city in the horizon of 1400 is more than 660 thousand people (that is, 20% of the population forecast difference). It means that the set of proposals presented for a population smaller than the predicted population has not been realized. And that in the comprehensive plan of Ardabil city, the macro perspective of the development of Ardabil city was proposed and predicted under the title of "green city", while in the horizon of the relevant plan, Ardabil faces a series of environmental issues such as air pollution, reduction of space per capita green, traffic, frequent flooding and complicated roads, change of land use, increase of urban waste and lack of proper and timely collection, reduction of quality of life and livability of Ardabil city, dominance of horse over pedestrian (vehicle driven), reduction of quantity and The quality of drinking water has been affected by the increase in the use of non-renewable energies, which indicates the instability of Ardabil city in the environmental field.
Therefore, in order to realize the goals of the development projects, it is suggested that, along with predicting a sufficient budget and identifying the person responsible for the realization of each proposal, the necessary executive guarantees should also be considered. Because the problem of providing financial resources, fragmentation in the implementation of the comprehensive urban plan (lack of integrated urban management) and lack of strong laws and regulations in the field of program implementation is one of the most important issues surrounding the realization of the proposals of urban development plans.