عنوان مقاله [English]
It is necessary to know the potential abilities and the functioning of the environmental factors affecting beekeeping, such as the identification of plant species and the length of the flowering period of plants, considering the role and importance of weather elements. With this information in hand, a fundamental step can be taken in the optimal use of honey bee food resources and the establishment of colonies in the right place and time. In this research, due to the great importance of temperature in bee breeding, 20 years of daily temperature statistics of meteorological stations were used. These data were used to identify the optimal temperature thresholds for honey bees and were made into a zoned map with the geographic information system. By using the degree index of growth days and regression equations of flowering dates to determine the migration time of the colonies, the evaluation and the results showed that the temperature thresholds of 10 and 20 degrees Celsius from May to September are among the active temperatures and to take advantage of the thermal potential of the region and the thermal power in the direction Optimum, special reference should be made to the months of June and July, which have the right temperature and the time when the plants of the Sablan area begin to flower, the difference in altitude is also very important in terms of temperature, because it causes the colonies to move at different temperatures. The results show that the oregano plant has a higher growth and flowering area than other plants in the region, so that it covers a large area in all stations from the middle of June and is a good source of food for honeybees in the hot months of the year. Finally, it should be added that by using the obtained calendar for the warm half of the year, the status of establishing the colonies in the right place and time will increase the per capita production and more income for the beekeepers.
Weather is one of the most important factors that have been important to humans throughout history, and usually agricultural activities deal with several weather factors during the day. This issue shows the important role of weather in human life and agricultural production. Beekeeping as one of the fields of agriculture is affected by the weather conditions and is closely related to the climatic condition . The science of studying climate effects on living organisms, both plants and animals, is called bioclimatology or bioclimatology. In addition to weather factors and climatic variables, the temperature factor plays an essential role in creating a balance between the bee and the plant environment . There is a close relationship between climatic elements, especially temperature, and the growth of bee colonies. The temperature determines the activity of the bee and the amount of its products . Coordination of beekeeping activities with climatic factors and its temporal and spatial patterns is one of the important issues regarding growth and breeding . One of the most common problems in the growth and development of honey bees is unusual changes in environmental conditions, such as a sudden increase or decrease in temperature (Contra et al., 2004). It should be noted that in the world, pollination of 400 species of agricultural products is done by honey bees, therefore the date of flowering plays an effective role in increasing honey production and fertilizing fields (Al-Ghamdi, 2003). If pollination by honey bees is not done, about 75% of crops will be damaged (Bardbar, 2009). In Iran, breeding honey bee colonies and harvesting high-quality honey depends on the plants available in the region and the flowering date of these plants in beekeeping. Plants such as thyme, gorse, oregano, and sage are found in abundance in Sablan mountain regions and increase the quality of honey in the region. It is mountainous and gives medicinal properties to this type of honey. Therefore, having sufficient information about the flowering period of mountain plants and the attractiveness of these plants for honeybees plays a very important role in the beekeeping industry (Kirimi et al., 2015). Therefore, it is important to analyze the climatic elements and determine the climatic calendar for the hot periods of the year when the plants of the region grow in the mountainous areas and create suitable thermal conditions to prevent the death of bees according to the weather conditions of each region in terms of time and place. By considering the critical thresholds of the honey bee and the weather conditions of each region, it is possible to use the maximum climatic potential of the regions to cultivate and exploit this valuable insect (Falah Qalhari et al., 2015). In the study of the bioclimatic aspects of bee breeding in Iran, studies have shown that taking into account temporal and spatial aspects through the process of bee activity plays an effective role in the beekeeping calendar, and the climatic and altitude conditions of each region play a large role in bee breeding (Shaemi, 2008). . The purpose of this research is to analyze climatic elements with plant distribution in Sablan region and its effect on the establishment of bee colonies in the warm half of the year.
In this research, the minimum and maximum daily temperature statistics of Ardabil and Meshginshahr meteorological stations from Ardabil province and Haris and Sarab from East Azerbaijan province were used. The 20-year data set, which covers the years 2000 to 2020, was obtained from the National Meteorological Organization and subjected to quality control to obtain temperature thresholds. Deviation from the optimal time and place conditions from April to September was calculated using the index of growth days and daily temperature, and the deviation for the optimal conditions during the months of the year was drawn in the form of a map. Vegetation of the region also plays an important role in the growth and breeding of honey bees, based on this, the flowering date of four species of plants in the region, oregano, gorse, thyme, and sage, was evaluated using the index of growth days and the minimum temperature of meteorological stations. The statistics obtained in order to determine the time of flowering were estimated at probabilistic levels in the CUMFREQ software environment and different levels of confidence were obtained 0.19, 0.44, 0.55 and 0.80% and the distribution that had the lowest standard deviation , was considered as the optimal date of flowering in future times for the desired station. Using regression equations between flowering date with latitude and longitude and height above sea level, it was evaluated based on linear regression for all stations, and the 80% confidence level equation, which had higher significance, was calculated and zoned maps with The use of geographic information system for the plants of the region was drawn.