عنوان مقاله [English]
In the context of growing concerns about environmental issues and sustainable development, policies and other measures to protect the environment are increasingly being developed. This has led to the development of tools and methods to support a variety of organizations in achieving and demonstrating the proper environmental performance of their activities, products and services. Environmental management techniques have led to improved understanding of potential impacts associated with activities, products or services, including risk assessment, environmental performance assessment, environmental auditing, environmental impact assessment, environmental labeling and life cycle assessment. Risk assessment is a process that is used to describe the risks that can affect the achievement of goals, understand their causes and determine the acceptability or intolerance of a certain level of risk. Environmental performance evaluation is a process to facilitate the management decisions of the organization in terms of their environmental aspects, by selecting indicators, collecting and analyzing data, evaluating information based on environmental performance criteria, reporting and communicating, and periodically reviewing and improving this. Trends are implemented.
Cooking oils are commonly used for frying purposes. Therefore, oil waste is very high in cooking and can even be problematic from an environmental point of view. Improper disposal of cooking oil waste can have significant negative effects on the environment. Under current EU law, the use of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production has become important. The share of biofuels produced from waste, waste, non-food cellulosic materials and lignocellulosic materials by 2030 is considered twice as much as other biofuels. Biofuels produced from these sources are called advanced biofuels or second generation. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil is one of these fuels. The importance of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oils will increase, especially when restrictions on the production of biofuels based on crops are introduced in European law. These regulations have had unexpected interactions. With the start of international imports of edible oil, its price even went beyond the price of edible vegetable oils such as palm oil, and eventually, it increased the cost of production and opened the door to counterfeit products. Since there is no real definition of waste cooking oil. Today there is no possible way to determine when to use cooking oil or not. Therefore, according to the revision of the Renewable Energy Instruction, there are sounds that indicate that cooking oil should be removed from the list of advanced biofuels.
Biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, whether or not it is an advanced biofuel, will continue to play a role in achieving renewable energy in transportation by 2030, given the lower greenhouse gas emissions. In general, the reduction in conventional greenhouse gas emissions for biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils is from 40 to 62%, while biodiesel from waste cooking oils shows a reduction of 88%, which still makes it attractive to practitioners.
Life cycle assessment begins with the collection of waste oil from households, restaurants and industry, and after recycling, the filtered oil is drained to separate solid particles and water. The refined oil then reaches the stage of biodiesel production by transesterification method. The purpose of this work is to study the theory and experimental performance characteristics of a diesel engine using biodiesel fuel from the point of view of life cycle assessment science. In this study, biodiesel production resources from collection and recycling stage to biodiesel production stage were considered as production inventory. Evaluations and analyzes were performed by IMPACT 2002+ method in life cycle assessment method. To evaluate the production of biodiesel, the production stage was divided into three parts, including the collection of waste cooking oil, recycling and refining of waste cooking oil, and finally biodiesel production by transesterification. At the collection stage, the only input studied was fuel. In the recycling and refining stage, fuel and electricity were used as inputs. For the production stage of biodiesel by transesterification method, inputs of waste oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, fuel, electricity, methyl ester and glycerin were used. Analyzes were performed in Sima Pro version 9 software under ISO 14040 and ISO 14041 standards. In this method, the results are studied in two categories, including intermediate indicators and final indicators. Intermediate indicators include carcinogenicity, non-carcinogenicity, respiratory effects due to inorganic compounds, respiratory effects due to organic compounds, ozone depletion, ionizing radiation, photochemical oxidation, water toxicity, soil toxicity, acid rain, eutrophication, land occupation, heating Universal, non-renewable energy and mineral extraction. Final indicators include human health, ecosystem quality, climate change and resources.
This study presents the methods and concepts introduced for the life cycle of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Used cooking oils have the potential to replace almost 2% of EU diesel consumption with the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 88% compared to diesel fuel, which is one of the main fossil fuels used in the transport industry. Given the importance of this alternative fuel and the support provided by energy and transportation policy frameworks around the world, it is important to evaluate its life cycle from a thermal economy perspective, analyze how the process improves, and compare results with others. Presentation of life cycle assessment results shows that biodiesel from cooking oil used is the most sustainable biodiesel in terms of the use of non-renewable sources. To further investigate the sustainability of production of this energy source, it is suggested that in future studies, the method of exergy and economic analysis be used along with the life cycle assessment method. Three perspectives are addressed to achieve greater stability of the production set. The amount of high available energy can promise the use of an energy source with high energy stability. However, there is a need for in-depth studies in this area to be able to emphasize the results. Achieving the minimum energy value of a fuel source that society should obtain from its energy utilization to support continued economic activity and social performance is one of the most important steps to improve the life cycle of producing an energy source. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the recycling and treatment stage needs to review and apply appropriate policies to reduce environmental impact.