عنوان مقاله [English]
Environmental education is one of the major concerns of environmental activists. Education is therefore important because it encourages desirable behaviors and increases the awareness of people in society. In the meantime, environmental education refers to the creation of harmonious and compatible behavior patterns with nature and understanding the relationship between man and his environment. In environmental education, it is necessary to bring children to a level where they can think well, see problems and issues and find solutions for them. In order to reach such a position, it is necessary to consider four important principles: 1) sensitizing children to the issues around them, 2) creating motivation to solve problems, 3) teaching critical thinking, 4) finding solutions in the education process. On the other hand, environmental education is considered a way to create and acquire environmental literacy. Environmental literacy means knowing environmental patterns and processes. In this context, there is a codified environmental education program under the title "Children's Place in the Environment" (ACPE) curriculum, which has six units. This program provides basic elements about the environment for teachers to teach students. The first unit includes respect for living organisms, the second unit is to preserve the soil, the third unit is to protect and renew the ecosystem, the fourth unit is to protect aquatic animals and plants, the fifth unit is to preserve natural resources, and the sixth unit is to achieve a sustainable society. The review of theoretical literature and previous research shows that the studies conducted so far did not analyze the content of the first and second year textbooks on a case-by-case basis, and each from a specific perspective with the aim of promoting biological literacy and paying attention to the environmental patterns of teaching. Examined the general this research, by examining previous studies and analyzing them, tries to examine and analyze the contents of the first and second year primary school textbooks from the perspective of environmental education.
In this research, the books of the first and second year of primary school have been examined based on the approach of environmental education and with the method of content analysis. The first year of primary school has five textbooks; let’s write Farsi, read Farsi, experimental sciences, mathematics and teaching Quran, which is also added in the second year of elementary school. In this research, the analyzed society is the textbooks of the first and second year of elementary school, compiled in 2010, which are all counted. The unit of analysis is images and written text. The reason for choosing textbooks is that textbooks are the most important and widely used educational media used in the education system. This educational medium has a more fundamental role in countries with a more centralized system and facilitates the learning process.
In order to answer the research question, all the books were analyzed and pictures and texts related to the environment were recorded. Surveys showed that topics related to the environment are mainly limited to introducing animals, elements of nature, introducing plants, referring to the beauty of nature, expressing feelings towards nature, referring to natural foods and enjoying nature. be On the other hand, educational sentences are very few and do not stand out significantly.
The findings of the research show that in the textbooks of the first year, the names and images of animals are the most frequent, so that 239 cases in the three books "Let's write Persian", "Read Persian" and "Experimental science" were about animals. 95 items were dedicated to the names and images of plants, and the sky and its elements and water, river and sea were also discussed from the aspect of introduction. In the math book, there are 31 pictures of animals for teaching addition or subtraction, 30 pictures of flowers and plants, 18 pictures of fruits and 3 pictures of life in the village. In the books of the second grade of primary school, the situation is somewhat different. Because unlike the books of the first year, which mostly introduce animals, plants or single words, in the books of the second year, the child is faced with coherent texts that intend to convey a message. Names and images of animals, names of fruits, introducing elements of nature, referring to the beauty of nature and giving importance to green spaces are such. The general content of the second Farsi book, read and write, is similar to writing. Enjoying nature, pictures of nature, animal life in the forest, pictures of butterflies, ants or the relationship between flowers and butterflies, learning words related to nature such as mountain, sea and forest, taking care of trees, branches and flowers, helping Animals, description of water and its sound, description of rainbow and presenting an image of happiness of parents in the heart of nature next to a river are the general concepts presented in the book. Key sentences are mainly mentioned in the science book of the second year of primary school. At the beginning of the book, the introduction of animals and their habitats is illustrated, and in one section, the topics of land and soil are mentioned. The contents related to land and soil are somewhat compatible with the objectives of the "Children's Place in the Environment" curriculum. In the second grade book of Heavenly Gifts, nature is mentioned as a heavenly gift that children are happy to have. In this book, there are beautiful pictures of flowers and plants, trees, forests, insects, clouds, and the sky, which give students a good feeling.
In the reviewed books, the creation and strengthening of a supportive attitude towards the environment has been brought up in an emotional way, and the beauty of nature has been mentioned in several cases. While not much attention has been paid to how to deal with the environment, and environmental issues, how to deal with them, creating sensitivity towards the surrounding environment, increasing the skill of recognizing issues and participating in solving environmental issues are at a very low level. are located In general, it can be said that the goals of environmental education, such as creating sensitivity towards the environment, creating participation in the improvement and preservation of the environment, the ability to identify and solve environmental problems, have not been realized in these books, and only superficial content has been presented. Enough of the environment and its issues. However, awareness of the elements of the environment and nature has been addressed to some extent. But it seems that the introduction of elements of nature does not necessarily lead to correct behavior and dealing with nature, and the analyzed books do not have the ability to motivate and think critically among students.