عنوان مقاله [English]
Studying people's attitudes towards greener options helps to understand their purchasing decisions. For this purpose, it is necessary to analyze the reasons that may lead to a negative attitude towards green products, which in turn hinders the sale of green products. One of these reasons may be the marketer's focus on maximizing utility, which has promoted materialism/consumerism as a value structure. By creating artificial demand for products through idealistic marketing, marketers have reinforced materialism and have focused on creating emotional connections between consumers and products by displaying psychological benefits, such as social status, happiness, and the power of product ownership. This has caused consumers to over-consume products to fulfill their endless psychological desires. People pay more attention to environmental protection and gradually increase their consumption of green products. Especially during the covid-19 pandemic, public perceptions and behavior patterns have shifted in a safer, healthier and greener direction. Therefore, business managers and researchers have been looking for ways to encourage consumers to buy green products, which has led to research in this field. The purpose of this research is to the effect of psychological characteristics on the attitude and intention to purchase green products with the moderating role of price sensitivity and environmental protection emotion.
This study is applied in terms of purpose, descriptive and survey methods. The statistical population of the research consists of all consumers of green products in Urmia city. According to Cochran's formula, 384 people were selected by a simple random sampling method. A standard questionnaire was used to collect information. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to analyze the research data. A structural equation model (SEM) is a specific causal structure between a set of latent variables and observed variables. Through the structural equation model, latent variables (factor or structure) can be measured indirectly by using obvious variables (questionnaire items or questions). As the results showed; the measurement model meets all quality and reliability criteria. Because, all factor loadings are higher than 0.4, composite reliability is higher than 0.7, and the average values of extracted variance are higher than 0.5. The structural model of this study is evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), predictive correlation (Q2), goodness of fit (GOF) test, and hypothesis testing. Three values of 0.19, 0.33 and 0.67 have been considered as criteria values for weak, medium and strong values of the fit of the structural part of the model by means of the coefficient of determination. According to research findings, it can be stated that all the values of the coefficient of determination are at the medium and strong level for fitting the structural part of the model. The obtained Q2 values show that the model has sufficient predictive relevance, as the values are above the threshold of 0.000. Considering that the model has all the criteria, it can be suggested that the structural model is good
Green products have the advantages of high nutritional value, being healthier, tasty, and being free from any chemical substances, and people with a price-sensitive spirit understand these advantages better, and they influence the willingness of such people to buy. It is effective. On the other hand, unfortunately, due to the high price of these products, some profit-seekers have tried to sell normal products with a green label, which has made consumers skeptical about products with a green label. Another reason for these results may be due to the lack of consumer knowledge about the quality of green products. Some evidence shows that there is an increase in the desire among Iranians for such a vegetable product; However, many consumers look for product safety, and are willing to pay a higher price for green products because they increase their level of utility, resulting in reduced health risks, hence, they are able to determine safety. They are green products before purchase. As a result, products with green stickers can strengthen consumers' sense of satisfaction in purchasing their products; in this way, by buying their products, even at a higher price, consumers will achieve a sense of inner satisfaction. It is worth mentioning that when the design of a product is impressive and powerful, consumers will be less sensitive to the price of the product. A focus on materialism tends to increase self-centeredness, which often causes little concern for others (including people and the environment). In contrast, where lower levels of materialism prevail, consumers value the well-being of society and the environment by showing concern and sensitivity towards the use and consumption of products. Sustainable development is now seen as an essential component of modern economic success, and environmental issues are expanding at an alarming rate around the world. The results of this study have important implications for academics, marketers, and policy makers who want to promote the wider use of green products. The findings of the research showed that materialism and perfectionism have a significant positive and negative effect on consumers' attitude towards green products, respectively, and this attitude towards green products has a positive and significant effect on the purchase green products. In addition, the results showed that price sensitivity moderates the relationship between materialism and attitude towards green products, but does not have a positive moderating role in the relationship between perfectionism and attitude towards green products. Finally, environmental protection emotion moderates the relationship between attitude and purchasing green products. In fact, perfectionism can be considered as a subsequent characteristic to achieve high human standards. Perfectionist people seek the best in their personal and social behavior and naturally want the best for their society and therefore look for green products. Consumers expect the green product to have the highest quality. High prices may equate to better products in most people's minds. Because most people believe that a high price reflects the best quality. However, in relation to perfectionism, it will be important to provide products that represent the social identity of people. On the other hand, people who have this motivation buy the green product with the perception that it is rarer and newer; because they have understood that these products are different compared to the products produced normally. Researchers have come to the conclusion that consumers with a high need for perfectionism tend to adapt to new products or brands more than consumers with a low need for uniqueness.