عنوان مقاله [English]
Local communities have always been the first to help the victims immediately after the disaster. Therefore, we should try to empower them as much as possible. Today community based components in disaster management occupies a very high position in the field of disaster management. Because in facing various disasters and reducing the damages caused by them, there has been a transition from the traditional paradigm of disaster management, where the focus was on the physical approach, to the new approach of community based disaster management. In this approach, the social dimensions of people's participation in decision-making and their implementation are among the most important stages of the disaster management process. Taking advantage of social resources, building local capacity and empowering the community to face various disasters are the basic components of this approach. In order to optimally manage the different stages of the disaster, various approaches are used. An approach that has been noticed in recent years is the developmental or community based approach. In this approach, an effort is made to increase the ability of the society to adapt to the harmful consequences of risks through capacity building and empowering the members of the society, and by involving participants into actions that lead to the reduction of the risk, and to empower the society to prevent and face with disasters and finally return to the original situation. In the form of this approach, two sub-approaches of the structural ideology and the institutional ideology have been explained in this direction. The structural ideology emphasizes on socio-economic criteria and the institutional ideology is based on the concept of resilience. In fact, the failure of top-down approaches caused a series of social and cultural topics such as trust, values and norms, social capital and human capacities to be taken into consideration in the field of urban, local and regional planning and management.
In the field of institutional approach, the correction and improvement of local institutional procedures and arrangements is emphasized. In this field, the main emphasis is not only on activate government political institutions at the local level, but also on the role of agents and non-governmental institutions. According to what is said, it can be found that the Institutional approach as a sub-approach of community-oriented disaster management is one of the latest approaches in the field of disaster management which is oriented in disaster management in connection with the participation of the citizens of Ardabil city.
The current research is descriptive and analytical with an applied purpose. During the study of the theoretical literature, it was found that basically the realization of people's participation in urban affairs, of which disaster management is also considered a part of; It requires providing the necessary grounds and platforms at the community level. Therefore, due to the wide range of the issues, it was tried to provide the criteria to investigate this issue within the scope of the study. The basis for choosing criteria is based on library and document studies, which include 6 criteria of (sense of place, social cooperation, social trust, social cohesion, incentive policies and educational activities) and 30 sub-criteria. The statistical population of this research is the districts of five regions of Ardabil city, and the questionnaires was used to collect statistics and information. The content validity of the questions of questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was obtained using Cronbach's alpha with the coefficient of 0.818. To obtain the statistical sample size, Cochran's formula was used, which was estimated to be 384 people with an error percentage of 0.05 and a confidence factor of 95%. Stratified random sampling method is proportional to attribution. In selecting the samples, we tried to refer mostly to the heads of the household. After indexing, first the average of each index was calculated using SPSS software, and then after weighting the studied indices using the Shannon entropy method, the target areas in the Excel software were ranked using the MABAC method.
In this research, in order to evaluate the participation of citizens of Ardabil city in urban crisis management, the Likert scale was used and the answers were ranked 1 to 5. In this way 1 refers to the lowest participation and 5 is the highest amount. In this way, the number 3 is considered as the theoretical median of the answers and the average obtained from the participation rate is compared with the number 3. Based on the results of the statistical calculations, the average of the total citizen participation criteria is 2.81 and is lower than the average. Among these, the lowest average is related to educational activities (2.59) and the highest average is related to social cohesion (3.50). Therefore, it can be concluded that despite the high potential of Ardabil city in the field of various risks and despite the repetition of many disasters; unfortunately, the city officials have not been able to realize the main deficiency of the urban crisis management system that is the weakness or lack of public participation.
The weakness of people's participation, which is one of the important principles of sustainable management, has caused that despite spending a lot of money in the disaster management system of Ardabil city, the urban system is still disturbed and confused by the occurrence of natural hazards. In addition, in the present research attempts to prioritize the areas of the 5 regions of Ardabil city in terms of the level of citizens' participation in disaster management by using the MABAC method. For this purpose, the citizens' responses were first collected and the average responses were entered in the Excel software as the primary matrix, and then the MABAC method was used to rank the areas. The results show that district 1 of the region 1 with a Q value of 0.546, is at the first rank, district 1 of the region 3, ranked second with a Q value of 0.351; district 2 of the region1, ranked third with a value of 0.315. Also, district 3 of region 4 ranks last with a Q value of -0.432.
In order to improve the participation of the citizens of Ardabil in urban disaster management, for each of the criteria considered for the current research the following suggestions and solutions were presented: implementing educational programs and also distributing features such as motivation, worrying about the future, helping and related knowledge and skills in schools, universities and visual, written and listening media seem necessary. Considering that one of the influential factors in citizens' participation is their satisfaction with city facilities and services, therefore, the city officials should distribute city services fairly at the city, ensure public welfare and comfort of the people, and create a safe and healthy urban space in order to Provide the basis for the participation of citizens as much as possible. By holding meetings at the neighborhood level and creating a local council, the city officials can take advantage of citizens' opinions, suggestions and criticisms, and by establishing a disaster management information and communication network which is a communication bridge between city officials and citizens, increase social trust and as a result, provide a greater desire for collaborative affairs among citizens. According to the results of the present research, the average indicators related to the sense of place in the areas that have better environmental conditions and physical quality (district 1 of region 3, district 2 of region 1, district 1 of region 1) compared to other districts is higher. Therefore, it seems that physical improvement - even if it is insignificant - and revitalization of community places in urban areas; It can facilitate the participation of citizens in the disaster management of Ardabil city.