عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban green spaces are one of the most important urban spaces that leave a significant impact on the livability of cities. During the Corona epidemic, due to the weakness in the resilience of urban green spaces, the possibility of visiting these places for citizens was limited. In this regard, urban green spaces play an important role in the post-corona era, for this reason, in this research, the impact of these places on the mental health of citizens in the post-corona era was investigated. In order to conduct this study, library resources and questionnaires were used, 12 questions out of 12 mental health indicators were proposed, and 207 questionnaires were completely collected through simple random sampling. To check the available data through the mean of points in such a way that 4, 3, 0, 2, 1 points are assigned to the options available in the research (I completely agree, I agree, I have no opinion, I disagree, I completely disagree) and with Performing the relevant calculations, the average score of each index was obtained and compared with the average score and the necessary results were determined. The findings showed that urban green spaces had the greatest effect on reducing anxiety and the least effect on increasing productive study. In general, it can be said that urban green spaces have a positive effect on the mental health of citizens, and proper planning should be done to expand these places at the level of cities.
The increase in the speed of modern urban life and the culture of neglect of city dwellers has reduced the communication of citizens with each other and marginalized the public spaces that are the basis for these interactions. In such a way that nowadays in the cities, especially in the mother cities, the direct connection with the natural environment has been forgotten or is observed to an insignificant extent (Salehifard and Alizadeh, 2017). One of the ways to reduce the adverse effects of modern urban life, such as stress, is to use green spaces. Visiting green spaces for a long time increases mental health and is important in improving the components related to mental health (Arasteh and Heydarzadeh, 2019). Green areas and other nature-based solutions provide innovative approaches to increase the quality of urban environments, increase local resilience and promote sustainable lifestyles, improving the health and well-being of urban residents (Vujcic et al, 2019). The Corona epidemic has had a significant impact on people's performance and the use of public spaces. Before the corona epidemic, city parks were considered as healthy places, one of the most popular places for the citizens of the cities, but during the corona epidemic, due to the absence of people, there was no excitement in the parks. It can be said that the perceived risk of disease has been effective on people's decision to attend city parks (Khozaei et al, 2021). Corona epidemic has affected the health of human societies in the whole world. In this period of time, the benefits of urban parks have been noticed for the residents, the evidence shows that the quarantine has caused mental and physical problems, and the use of urban green spaces such as urban parks can reduce these effects. so it can be said that citizens need quality natural environments in their cities to maintain their required health, and these environments include urban green spaces and especially urban parks and During an epidemic, they can reduce the psychological effects on citizens (Gheng et al, 2021; Robinson et al, 2021; Lu et al, 2021; Dushkova et al, 2021; Lohmus et al, 2021; Pouso et al , 2020).
According to the method of collecting information, materials and methods, this research is an applied research type from the objective point of view, and a descriptive research type from the nature and method point of view. The statistical population of the present study includes people who visited city parks during the subsidence of the Corona epidemic and were present in these spaces, and it is not specific to a specific area, and the questionnaire has been widely distributed in virtual spaces. The questionnaire was prepared and adjusted with a simple random sampling method from 12 October 2022 to 11 November 2022 in order to have a diverse and significant statistical population through online and approved messengers among different people from It was distributed all over the country (Vafadari Komarolya et al., 2022; Lu et al, 2020) and from the received questionnaires, 207 questionnaires that can be used in the research were identified and analyzed. In the current research, library sources such as related articles and questionnaires were used, the way to answer the questions and the purpose of the questionnaire were included in the questionnaire, and the questionnaire included 12 indicators of mental health, which include: happiness, aggression, anxiety, and depression. , psychological pressure, self-confidence, proper sleep, doing daily tasks, social communication, thinking, productive study, use of social networks (ghasemi et al., 2017). And a question was asked for each index. It should be noted that to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire, the method of repeating the test was used, so that we distributed 10 questionnaires among the experts in a two-week period, and the comparison of the answers in two different periods of time showed their significant correlation, i.e. All 10 people present in the examination process had given the same answers to the questions compared to the first time of the experiment, which showed a 100% correlation. In terms of the validity of the questionnaire, 10 questionnaires were distributed among the experts and their validity was verified by them. It was confirmed (Vafadari Komarolya et al., 2022; Vafadari Komarolya et al., 2022). After collecting the questionnaires, the data in them was extracted and the frequency of each option in the questions was determined. After this process, points (4, 3, 0, 2, 1) were assigned to the available options (completely agree, agree, have no opinion, disagree, completely disagree) to check the answers given. After applying the point averaging process, the score related to each mental health index was determined and compared with the mean score average (2) and the score average of other indicators and finally the summary of the said process is fully presented in the results section. (Vafadari Komarolya et al., 2022)
Urban green spaces are important urban spaces that leave different effects in different aspects of citizens' lives. In this research, the effect of urban green spaces on the mental health of the community in the post-corona era was investigated, and the results indicated that urban green spaces have a positive effect on reducing the adverse effects of anxiety, depression, aggression, stress, use of virtual networks and It also increases the positive effects of happiness, self-confidence, proper sleep, doing daily tasks acceptably, social communication, thinking and studying. These places showed the greatest impact on reducing anxiety (average score of 3) and the least impact on productive study (average score of 2.2). By calculating the average score of the mental health indicators, the number 2.6 was obtained, which shows a positive difference of 0.6 compared to the average of 2, which confirms the positive impact of urban green spaces on the mental health of citizens. To increase the impact of urban green spaces on the mental health of citizens, the following solutions are provided:
1- Per capita increase of urban green spaces
2- Improving access to urban green spaces
3- Cultivation of plants with an attractive form and beautiful and fragrant flowers in urban green spaces
4- Increasing sports facilities in city parks
5-Using urban televisions and loudspeakers in urban parks to broadcast music and happy programs
6- Using water in the design of urban green spaces to create peace
7- Cultivation of plants with attractive and happy colors in urban green spaces
8- Selection of suitable environments (away from noise pollution and disturbing uses) for the construction of urban parks
9- Conducting the necessary investigations before designing and building urban parks in order to understand climatic factors such as prevailing winds and provide appropriate solutions to reduce their adverse effects.
10-Covering unfavorable and stressful landscapes around city parks by using suitable planting design of ornamental plants.