عنوان مقاله [English]
The design of plans has changed with the modernization of society; This is an issue that has consensus in all countries of the Islamic world. And according to the opinion of contemporary Syrian architects, there is another assumption that in cities like Homs, this change in plans happened after French colonialism entered Syria; Therefore, it was necessary to prove or reject this assumption by analyzing the plans of houses in different eras.
Residential architecture involves spatial relationships that accommodate functions, provide social relationships, and create visual interest. Through openings and walls, architects manipulate the continuity and discontinuity of visual fields in two and three dimensions.
Syntax of space, which is the subject of this study, is a scientific or research approach to understanding and evaluating architectural space. The "space syntax" method can expand and develop in many urban problems and can be the foundation of a methodical approach to architectural and urban space. The purpose of this method is to describe the spatial models and display them in the form of graphic forms and thus facilitate the scientific interpretations of the desired spaces.
Therefore, the current research aims to identify the features of the historical and contemporary house plans of Homs City and to know the common features and elements of difference between them. And specifically, it can be said that investigating the concept of privacy and its effect on the spatial configuration of traditional and contemporary residential buildings is the main goal of this research.
Therefore, the main question of the research is raised as follows: in what way does the spatial configuration of traditional and modern houses in the city of Homs respond to the essential need for privacy? And in the passage of time from the Ottoman era to the present, what changes have been made in the spatial configuration of the houses in the historical city of Homs?
This research has a theoretical approach based on the goal it pursues. The research method is interpretative-comparative; and according to its topic, several traditional and contemporary houses in Homs city have been investigated. And the required information has been collected through the study of documents, library sources, written sources, and maps of houses, in addition to a field survey of the old neighborhood of Homs city. Then, using the Space-Syntax method, the spatial structure of the selected houses has been analyzed and investigated.
The sample studied is the houses of the old city of Homs. Considering the variable effect of the plan shape and the number of spaces and the physical shape of the buildings in general, the houses were selected based on the variable shape of the plans over time. And therefore, 12 houses from the old neighborhoods of Homs City were selected as a case study.
In this research, through the method of space arrangement and analysis of space syntax and based on the models resulting from the Depth map software from the analysis of residential buildings in the old neighborhood of Homs city, the plans were placed in the context of three main types of analysis:
1- Access and hierarchy of spaces:
And this is to measure the access in the spaces of the houses in different periods and its results can be seen in the correlation diagram resulting from the space syntax software.
Analyzing the plans of Ottoman period houses, it seems that the central courtyard plays the role of access to different spaces. And it can be said that the courtyards have the highest degree of integration and access to deeper spaces is done through this space. But the houses of the French period were designed in such a way that they don't have a yard, but they have an intermediate space in the house similar to a yard, based on which the role of access to the spaces becomes somewhat similar to traditional houses. In fact, these houses have a space that acts as a distribution space. Contemporary houses that were built after the independence period have different and generally modern designs that do not have a yard or a large space like that, they only have about one corridor. And these buildings reflect great integration between spaces and there is easy access to all spaces.
And to check the privacy in houses, the method of visible space (and metric step) has been used.
The analysis of the maps shows that assuming the origin of the entrance door of the houses, the rooms of the traditional houses are much longer than the rooms of the contemporary houses compared to the origin point. Also, the analysis of the maps of the French-era houses shows that the visual communication of the rooms is appropriate compared to the entrance.
3- Overlapping connection and co-linking (explanation):
Based on the findings from the upper table, it can be said that there is a correlation between the two variables of connection and co-connection; It can be said that in traditional houses, the regression line has a slope of approximately 45 degrees, which means that the reading between the amount of connection and co-connection in these houses is very high. And to some extent, it can be seen that the traditional houses left over from the Ottoman era and the houses that were built during the French era have more connections than the houses that were built after independence from colonialism.
And based on the examination of the accessibility and hierarchy of spaces, privacy, and clarity, it can be summarized that the contemporary houses, compared to the houses of the previous periods, are both smaller in the area and have lower permeability. And by checking the maps based on the depth map program, it is clear that the spatial depth decreases in new houses compared to historical houses, and the integrity increases on the contrary; this is a big spatial transformation in the spatial arrangement of houses. And it can be said that due to the limitation of space and the removal of the yard from the house plan, in most cases the shared rooms have a role similar to the yard in modern houses, so the modern private space is only protected by closing the doors of the room.
The historical city of Homs is a treasure that is full of traditional houses, buildings that belonged to the Ottoman period, plus houses left over from the French era, and contemporary buildings that were built after independence. In this research, house plans were analyzed.
The purpose of the current research is to focus on the spatial communication of houses in different periods, therefore, this research has examined fifteen examples of houses in the city of Homs with the spatial-spatial technique. And as you have seen in the findings of the research, similar spatial organizations can be seen in the shape classifications of the houses of the Ottoman period and the houses of the French period, unlike the houses of the contemporary period. Spatial connections that are not clearly seen in contemporary houses from the special features of the traditional houses of Homs city; In modern houses, bedrooms have little depth, while in traditional houses, they have the highest depth, and this shows low attention to privacy in the spaces and low attention to social relations between the residents of the space and intimacy and comfort.
Now, based on the obtained results, it is possible to explain the configuration based on the old plans, and based on that, suitable plans for building residential buildings can be proposed. It should be noted that privacy is not related to the presence of a yard in traditional houses, but it is related to the lack of connection between the spaces in the bed of the houses. Because the buildings left from the French era had good privacy even though they did not have a yard, it can be said that the plans of these houses are a suitable model for building contemporary buildings and these examples should be considered in today's plans.