عنوان مقاله [English]
The growth and development of the tourism industry, especially in the case of developing countries that face many problems such as high unemployment rate, lack of or limited foreign exchange resources and single product economy, is of considerable importance. The understanding of the communities in this case that the tourism industry is considered a desirable and stable source of foreign exchange income has caused tourism to achieve a very wide meaning and concept in various economic and social dimensions and is considered as an important industry. In many parts of the world, natural beauty and attractiveness are the primary and basic reasons for attracting tourists and developing the tourism industry (Nad Alipour, 2015: 6). In case of the presence of the causal conditions resulting from the theory in the positive experimental examples and its absence in the negative examples, this research will enable us to generalize the results to the research theory and strengthen the reliability of the theory according to the alignment with the experimental examples. . According to the definition of the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourist refers to people who travel to a country other than their country of residence and pursue a goal other than what they have in their own country (Abdini and Ranjbari, 2015: 15). , those activities of people who travel to places and places outside their residence and work for the purpose of recreation, rest and doing other things and do not stay there for more than one consecutive year are referred to as tourism
In this comparative research, a combined approach was used. The strategy adopted in this study is the simultaneous hybrid method in which quantitative and qualitative data were converged and integrated in order to comprehensively analyze the research problem. In this research, the researcher tried to collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time and then integrate the information in the interpretation of the final results (Creswell, 2009). In the comparative-quantitative approach, the case-oriented fuzzy logic approach was adopted. This study was conducted among 82 countries. In terms of time, the current study is cross-sectional and includes data between 2011-2016. The second approach is the comparative-qualitative case-oriented approach, which is based on multiple case studies based on the logic of repetition. On the one hand, this type of research design is similar to an analytical comparison that uses the double agreement method, that is, the agreement and difference method, that is, the comparison of two sets of positive and negative cases (Newman, 1991: 421). On the other hand, according to the mentioned plan, not only induction logic has been used, but according to the theoretical model of the research, attention has also been paid to predicting the results in "multiple conflicting situations". Hence, the repetition of items used is almost similar to that used in multiple experiments (Robert Yin, 2003: 47).
The research sample of this study includes a set of countries that are considered rich in terms of tourism potential, but in practice some of them have been successful and some have been unsuccessful. The set of positive cases includes 8 countries, all of which are among the first eight countries in attracting foreign tourists. In contrast to the 8 negative countries, there are cases that, despite their rich cultural and historical heritage and many natural attractions, are not as successful in attracting foreign tourists as they should be. In order for the theory to have an acceptable analytical generalization capability, the selection of the cases under study was done based on targeted theoretical sampling. With this account, if the theoretical prediction matches the results of the set of positive cases (so-called real repetition) and the results of the set of negative cases (so-called theoretical repetition), then the experimental findings confirm the theoretical model of the research and the results of the research can be at least compared to similar cases. It generalizes (Chalbi and Abbasi, 2014: 52).
In this method, each of the conditions for attracting foreign tourists using Boolean algebra based on the calibration technique and determining the criteria of membership, non-membership and the intersection point in the total of successful and unsuccessful cases as a suitable comparative and analytical method, in relation to the result placed and after calculating the inverse causality in connection with the occurrence of a single result, in the final analysis by combining the theoretical conditions, the inverse causality of tourist attraction was tested at the macro level. An attempt was made to standardize the scales and determine the cut-off points for these 16 countries by using external criteria, especially the specialized knowledge and experience of key informants. The criteria for selecting countries was based on the success rate in attracting tourists and the ranking of countries in having natural and historical heritage and natural attractions. The 8 countries in the set of positives are all ranked 1st to 8th for attracting tourists, with the exception of Thailand, all of them also benefit from cultural and natural attractions. In contrast to the 8 countries in the set of negative cases, there are cases that are not very successful in attracting tourists despite their rich cultural heritage and natural attractions.
In general, this research aimed to answer this question in the form of sociological analysis, in general, what factors in the form of a combined causality cause the strong or weak performance of countries in attracting foreign tourists. For this purpose, the researchers tried to integrate and converge the results of quantitative and qualitative methods by presenting a combined theory and using a combined method (quantitative and qualitative). An attempt was made to collect both quantitative and qualitative data at the same time and integrate them in the interpretation of the final results. In the quantitative comparative approach, the results of inverse and combined causality showed that among the many causal paths, only two causal paths were of theoretical and empirical importance, which are sufficient conditions to explain the non-occurrence of the event (tourist attraction). These two paths include the conditions of political, cultural and social globalization, rule of law, competitiveness in infrastructure, social security, democracy and cultural and natural attractiveness as sufficient conditions. In the qualitative comparative approach, the final equation of the research showed that the attraction of foreign tourists is realized in the conditions where the conditions of social security, social capital, competitiveness, cultural, social and political globalization are present in the society, and in the absence of these variables, it cannot be expected to attract foreign tourists. The empirical examples of this claim are some unsuccessful countries in which the above combined conditions were not present. The most important theoretical and methodological achievement of this research was confirming the theory in a few limited cases and generalizing it to similar results, as well as repeating the results using two different quantitative and qualitative methods, which shows the validity of the results and the reliability of the measurement tools. From a theoretical point of view, it can be boldly said that the research theory in connection with these experimental examples has a higher capacity or potential power, and with the development of the results of this study within the theory, this theory has high reliability due to the alignment of external examples with it. Also, the beauty and innovation of this research is that it tried to present a unified model and showed its experimental examples in large and small Ns (quantitative and qualitative comparative methods). So that there was no example, the empirical contradiction of this theoretical claim.
What are important are the combination of variables and the construction of sufficient causal combinations that lead to the occurrence of the desired event. Without an effective and durable relationship with the world system, especially from two political, social and cultural dimensions, it is not possible to have a share of its material and spiritual gifts in the field of tourism industry. There is no country that does not have a networked and overlapping connection with the world system, and at the same time has been successful in attracting foreign tourists. Therefore, globalization significantly increases tourism opportunities. It also increases the global competition of the tourist destination at the international level. At the level of the internal structure of tourism, it is linked with economic, social and political justice, and the general efficiency of societies plays an essential role in this. The social system must have the necessary efficiency in various economic, political, social and cultural fields. To organize the tourism industry, it is an undeniable necessity to protect the rights and safety of tourists, which is related to the responsibility of the government at the macro level. Competitiveness in the field of public goods (including public infrastructure) are among the factors that should be considered in this connection.