عنوان مقاله [English]
In conventional agriculture, there are more than three hundred types of chemical inputs such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers which are used to control the vulnerability of agricultural products and soil fertility. This research was carried out to identify Factors affecting hygiene behavior of greenhouse owners on pesticides in khozestan province Statistical population consisted of all active greenhouse owners in khozestan province (N=90). The sample size was determined by Kerjesy and Morgan table (n=80) The research tool was a questionnaire which its validity and its reliability was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the software of spss and Smart PLS. The results of structural equation showed that variables attitude, knowledge, information source, , background of poisoning can predict 76 percent of changes of hygiene behavior of greenhouse owners on pesticides. According to the results knowledge of greenhouse owners on pesticides was the most important variable affecting their hygiene behavior. In fact, improvement of greenhouse owners knowledge on danger of pesticides can result in their safer and more hygiene behavior Achieving safety and hygiene in the use of pesticides through greenhouse farmers' attitudes towards the dangers of chemical pesticides requires the correct knowledge and awareness of greenhouse farmers about the dangers of chemical pesticides.
In conventional agriculture, more than three hundred types of chemical inputs such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and chemical fertilizers are used to control the vulnerability of agricultural products and soil fertility (Salarvand, 2014; Imani, et al, 2021; salarvand, 2014). Farmers and chemical pesticide handlers who are directly in contact with these substances are exposed to many risks (Ghasemi and Karami, 2009; Bondori et al, 2019; Bagheri et al. 2021). This issue is of particular importance for greenhouse owners. Because the conditions of the closed space of the greenhouses affect the chemical inputs and the plastic materials used in the roof and walls of the greenhouse prevent the wavelengths effective in the light decomposition of chemical toxins to reach and it reduces the chemical decomposition process compared to field conditions, and as a result, it is possible that pesticide residues in greenhouse products are more than in open field conditions (Mohammadi and Imani, 2012). Greenhouse crops have been receiving attention in the last few years according to the plans and policies of the government and have had a growing trend. Despite the importance and status of greenhouse crops, the development of greenhouses is associated with many concerns and issues such as environmental problems, especially the possibility of groundwater pollution, destruction and destruction of water sources, construction within the boundaries and water boundaries of cities, and excessive use of chemical poisons have been faced for various reasons (MoghadamFard and Shams, 2016). Khuzestan province, as one of the important poles of the agricultural sector in the country, ranks fourth in the consumption of chemical pesticides in agriculture after Mazandaran, Fars and Golestan provinces and based on the research conducted in different regions of this province, chemical pesticides are used indiscriminately in agriculture, without observing the period of carnes and time of use, not observing the health and safety points of the farmers and without accurately diagnosing the cause of the damage (Hossein zad et al. 2010). According to the information mentioned above, and also the greenhouse space is a suitable place for the reproduction of all kinds of fungi and pests due to its closedness and high humidity, also, harvesting these products shortly after the spraying of the poison causes a large amount of chemical poison residues to remain in the greenhouse production products (Jahed Khaniki et al. 2011). Based on the prevailing weather conditions in the greenhouses, the contact of the farmers with these chemical pesticides has intensified and can impose dangerous effects on the greenhouses (Bakand et al. 2012; Hoshmandan Moghadam Fard and Shams, 2016). Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the factors affecting the health behavior of greenhouse farmers in Khuzestan province towards pesticides.
This research is an applied research type, in terms of collecting field data and in terms of analysis method, it is part of descriptive-correlational research. The statistical population of this research included greenhouse owners from 1399-1400 in Khuzestan province (N=90). Based on the table of Karjesi and Morgan and using completely random sampling method, the sample size was determined to be 80 people. The main research tool was a questionnaire that included six sections of demographic characteristics, attitude, knowledge, and history of poisoning as independent variables and health behavior as dependent variable. Except for demographic characteristics, other variables were measured in the form of a Likert scale after completing the questionnaire, the collected data were coded and statistically analyzed by SPSSv22 and Smart PLS2 software.
According to the data analysis, the average age was 38 years, the maximum and minimum were 65 and 20 years, respectively. The highest frequency belongs to the age group of 31 to 45 years. From the total number of respondents examined in this research, 52.5% answered that they have another job besides the greenhouse job. In terms of education level, 10% had elementary-middle school, 27.5% high school, and 62.5% had a university degree. The experience background of the studied greenhouse owners was 13 years and the minimum was 3 years. On average, the studied sample had 5 years of greenhouse experience. In order to rank the factors affecting the health behavior of the greenhouse owners of Khuzestan province towards pesticides, the coefficient of variation was used, and its values are mentioned. As Table 2 shows, smoking, eating and drinking, and washing hands and face with soap after spraying, with coefficients of variation of 0.49, 0.53, and 0.54, respectively the first to third priorities were assigned to themselves. The overall average health behavior of greenhouse farmers in Khuzestan province towards pesticides was 17.15. Also, the results show that 60% of the greenhouse owners had a relatively weak attitude regarding the use of chemical pesticides. The findings of this research are in accordance with research (Ghasemi and Karami, 2009; Golzardi et al. 2011), but with research (Bondori et al. 2019; Bondori et al. 2020; Bondori et al. 2021; Nazarian et al. 2009 and Mahboubi and Ahmadi Gorji, 2017) were inconsistent. Some researchers believe that false beliefs can seriously affect the behavior of farmers to protect themselves from risks (Salameh et al. 2004; Ghasemi and Karami, 2009). According to the findings, 52.5% of greenhouse owners had relatively poor knowledge about the use of chemical pesticides. Improving the awareness and knowledge of farmers can potentially reduce the use of pesticides by 10-15%. The results of this research were consistent with the research results (Mohanty et al. 2013) and (Sankoh et al. 2016). But with the research results (Bondori et al, 2019; Bondori et al, 2020; Bondori et al, 2021; Nazarian et al. 2009; Houbraken et al. 2016 and Weng and Black, 2015) were inconsistent. According to the obtained findings, the most important variable affecting the health behavior of greenhouse farmers towards pesticides is the variable of knowledge of greenhouse farmers towards pesticides, followed by attitude variables, poisoning history and information sources. The results of this research show that these four variables explain a total of 76% of the changes in the health behavior of greenhouse farmers towards pesticides. In fact, achieving safety and health in the use of pesticides through the attitudes of greenhouse farmers towards the dangers of chemical pesticides requires the correct knowledge and awareness of greenhouse farmers about the risks of chemical pesticides.