عنوان مقاله [English]
Currently, most of the produced waste such as; Household, institutional, urban and street wastes, industrial and commercial areas, as well as construction and demolition wastes (Birhanu & Berisa, 2015), agricultural wastes, chemical and non-biodegradable, organic, biomedical materials in most In countries, in general, after collecting the municipal waste at the source, the disposal process is carried out as a mixture in landfills (Banerjee & Sarkhel, 2019). The amount and composition of the produced waste is different due to the consumption pattern in different countries and changes significantly with the passage of time. The existing waste sites are filling up at a very fast rate, and it is more difficult to build new landfill sites due to the lack of land, the increase in land prices, and high demand. Lack of urban waste management in developing countries due to the lack of necessary technologies, insufficient and limited financial resources, low and insufficient skills in the collection and storage of waste in urban open spaces, undesirable disposal measures. Widespread garbage in landfills, as well as one-third of garbage being left indiscriminately on the streets or in drains, lead to serious problems on the personal and social health of humans and the environment. Animals, the aesthetic landscape of urban nature and the reduction of tourism and economic value caused by the changes in the ecosystem of the region due to the pollution and reduction in the quality of soil and surface and subsurface water in the areas adjacent to the landfill sites as a result of the leachate flowing in The environment and rivers, especially in the rainy season, the increase of greenhouse gases and the emergence and intensification of all kinds of rodents, insects, urban and domestic flies, and its unfortunate consequences in the form of the production and spread of various cancerous and contagious diseases and injuries. and deaths caused by it (Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I; Mansour, Mona S.M, 2018; Sinthumule & Mkumbuzi, 2019; Zambezi, F. M, et al. 2020) in the long term, imposing various types of exorbitant costs Attacks on communities, and individual/social concerns on the population living in its vicinity Makwara & Magudu 2013; Tanyanyiwa, 2015; Das, et al. 2016; Serge Kubanza, Nzalalemba, Kalra, N, 2020). Ardabil city municipality was established in 1303, today with a population equal to 560,000 people according to the census of 2016, with a daily production of 370 tons and an annual production of 11,100 tons of wet and dry garbage and collecting and burying them without any separation process and operation, in two places Gurjan and Taleb Qashlaghi intersections are carried out by contractors with high costs. One of the basic new approaches in the field of urban waste management is the approach of public participation. Therefore, this research seeks to provide models of the public participation approach in urban waste management from the perspective of urban planning.
Materials & Methods
This research aims to investigate and evaluate the patterns of public participation in urban waste management from the point of view of urban planning, in order to achieve the goals of identifying practical suggestions and implementing legal/civil, specialized, supportive, and interactive solutions with the approach of changing the cultural/social pattern. Waste production has a strategic contribution to helping sustainable urban livability by facilitating the process of people's participation in the planning and optimal management of all types of urban waste in Ardabil city. According to the objectives of the research, the researcher designed a questionnaire with 35 questions with a statistical population of 450 people, using a quantitative survey/applied method with a five-point Likert scale with 4 components and 13 subscales, in an effort to answer the research questions such as; In general, is there a significant relationship between public participation and optimal urban waste management in Ardabil city? Is there a difference between the support approach (types of motivational, structural, and facilitating mechanisms) of people's participation in urban waste management and reduction of urban costs, between the approach of legal/civil structures (factors of people's participation resulting in the amendment and improvement of administrative rules and regulations in providing services) In urban waste management and culture building, between educational/specialist approaches (media, education, and health), people's participation in urban waste management and information, awareness, and knowledge in mass and social media and finally between interactive participation approach Is there a significant relationship between public participation and the optimal management of urban waste?, so that the reasons for the lack of attention of the citizens of Ardabil in the management of urban waste (garbage) are determined in the hypotheses based on the questions.
Result and discussion
The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the support approaches of public participation in urban waste management and reduction of urban costs is equal to 0.96 and its t-statistic is also equal to 12.32. Because the t-statistic in the resulting structural equation (12.32) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with %95 confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between civic approaches of public participation in urban waste management and cultural development is equal to 0.8 and because the t-statistic (20.12) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with %95 confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the specialized approaches of public participation in urban waste management and information and awareness in mass and social media is equal to 0.59 and the resulting t-statistic (16.93) is greater than the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96). Therefore, the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis is confirmed with 95% confidence. The standard coefficient of the structural equation between the interactive participation approach of public participation and the optimal management of urban waste is equal to 0.8 and its t-statistic is also 12.65 greater than the value of the t-statistic with %95 confidence (1.96), so the assumption of a significant relationship in the hypothesis with %95 assurance is confirmed.
Considering the assumptions in the research results and based on interviews with experts and the results of the questionnaire, the current state of the waste management process in Ardabil city has been investigated; Due to the lack of skills and insufficient expertise, budget and facilities, the issue of laws and regulations, lack of serious will and lack of knowledge and desire among managers and city officials and councilors and the city council, lack of appropriate legal mechanisms. , the facilities and facilities regarding waste separation at the source in residential and industrial towns, houses, and stores are very few and insufficient. In the waste collection sector, the number of waste bins in urban areas is low, and on the other hand, the collection method and schedule are not set properly. Therefore, the participation of citizens is very weak. Therefore, it is suggested to amend the laws and create a platform for executive, supervisory and motivational mechanisms and the positive approach of urban planners with the cooperation of formal and informal centers and organizations, academic, religious, and urban trustees, and with cooperation and accompaniment. Mass and social media in the direction of education, awareness, and information in creating a desire for the participation of the general public in the systematic management of sustainable management of urban waste in organizing the production, reduction, separation, recycling, and recovery of all types of urban waste, an expensive and costly burden. The municipal administrative shower will be removed.
Patterns of general community participation, urban waste management, urban planning.