Assessing the status of primary health care (PHC) in the suburbs of Ardabil

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 خیابان دانشگاه، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی - گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی/ دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

10.22034/jess.2023.386008.1973

چکیده

Health is the people's inalienable right, and its provision is considered a social goal. The need for health services is planned based on the condition of human societies for survival and maintenance of Health and its promotion in communities. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and evaluate the status of primary health care and how to provide services to related institutions in the sheds of suburbs of Ardabil. The present research cross-sectionally evaluated the status of primary health care indicators in the suburbs of Ardabil. Research data were collected through the library and field methods, and the tool used was a researcher-made questionnaire that was distributed and completed among all supervisors. The essential aspects of the questionnaire were considered by emphasizing the comprehensiveness of services and components related to the category of primary health care. The results showed that the condition of primary health care components in the study areas is not good. Also, the mean rank of influential research variables in primary health care is not equal, so the highest mean (3.41) belongs to immunization against major infectious diseases, and the lowest norm (1.45) belongs to the preparedness variable. Dealing with natural disasters shows the importance of improving the Health of citizens and protecting them against major infectious diseases by taking the necessary measures. Considering that Health is an inalienable right of every human being, therefore, the fair distribution of health services and social and economic resources related to this field should be the top priority of those in charge, which requires a careful review of the principles. We are providing health services and well-codified planning in this regard, motivating people to enjoy it. In addition, public Health should be involved in self-care and provide the basis for the participation of residents and the private sector in all stages.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the status of primary health care (PHC) in the suburbs of Ardabil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Alipour 1
  • Mohammad hasan Yazdani 2
  • Alireza Mohammadi 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran
3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی - گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری و روستایی/ دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
چکیده [English]

Essential health services based on applied methods are scientifically valid and socially acceptable, available to everyone through the full participation of individuals and families, at a cost that society can at any stage of development. Do it with a spirit of self-reliance and self-control. These cares are both an integral part of the country's health system and the main focus of its attention. They are an integral part of society's overall economic and social development. This care is the first level of contact of individuals, family, and society with the country's health system and brings health services as close as possible to where people live and work, and is the first component of the ongoing health care process. Forms (14 Almaty Declarations). Reviewing the marginal situation and improving access to quality health care and thus improving Health is also one of the proposed strategic measures.
The present study cross-sectionally evaluates the status of primary health care indicators in the study area. The research data was collected through the library and field methods. The tool used was a researcher-made questionnaire distributed and completed among 101 heads of households in the suburbs of Ardabil. The essential aspects of the questionnaire are also considered with emphasis on the comprehensiveness of services and components related to the category of primary health care (as shown in Figure 2). Data analysis in this study was performed at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS software. At the level of descriptive statistics, data are analyzed using statistical indicators such as frequency, mean and standard deviation. Also, statistical tests such as Spearman tests and Friedman analysis of variance were used at the inferential level appropriate to the level of data measurement and questions.
Descriptive findings on demographic variables show that the frequency distribution of respondents by gender is such that out of 101 people, 84 respondents are male and 17 are female. Of these, 17.5% were under 30 years old, 41% were 30-40 years old, 28% were 40-50 years old, and 13.5% were over 50 years old. Regarding the people's level of education in question, the highest percentage was related to diploma and under-diploma with 67%. Due to their marital status, 37 of the sample, equivalent to 37.25 percent, are single, 62 participants in the study, equivalent to 60.78 percent, are married, and 2, equivalent to one percent, are divorced. In addition, most of the respondents were self-employed and day laborers. Out of the 1.97 self-employed, most residents were traveling and collecting waste; Carpet weaving is also done in some homes. The income level of the respondents in the study area shows that many of them have lower incomes than the standard norm of society. According to the deprivation trap theory, marginalized men and women suffer from five unfavorable clusters (Poverty, physical weakness, family isolation, deprivation, and vulnerability), and family powerlessness are interrelated and reinforce each other like chains tied to the hands and feet of the poor. Thus, the prevailing poverty in these areas overshadows all areas related to the lives of citizens, including Health, and creates a kind of pessimism towards health officials and trustees.
In line with the objectives of the research and the answers to the questions, the information obtained in the field of eleven indicators of the research shows that the status of primary health care components in the study area is not in good condition. In disease prevention education, more than 98% of the population reported moderate to low satisfaction. Regarding the measures taken by the authorities, 2.78% evaluated educating families to solve health problems as very low. Regarding the measures taken by institutions to prevent and control diseases, 1.88% voted very little.
On average, the highest average related to health awareness was 1.3%. This report can be a reason for the authorities' lack of awareness of citizens about health issues. In the field of nutrition of the citizens of the suburbs of Ardabil, the results of the research show that more than 96% did not have access to sufficient and healthy food, as a result of which they needed food quality, so more than 98% Respondents mentioned moderate to low quality food. Also, not all people hope to improve the quality and quantity of food consumed in the future as the current trend continues. Regarding access to safe drinking water, 2.77% of the water quality available was moderate to low. They also expressed dissatisfaction with the quality of the living environment in terms of Health. Thus, the quality of living space in terms of Health in the study area is not satisfactory and requires serious attention to prevent environmental diseases. In the field of maternal and child health care index and education required for family planning, 5% to the low option, 4.61% for the medium option, 7.31% for high option, and 2% to very high option in terms of the amount of care Health of their children, voted.
Also, 2.74% of young children had less access to primary health care, and also due to a lack of knowledge about family planning regarding the age gap between infants, more than 90% of respondents did not follow. Regarding protecting the environment against infectious diseases, 4.58% selected the moderate option, and 41.6% have taken the necessary measures. In preventing common endemic diseases and their control in the study area, the results show that 88 (87.1%) of the respondents have performed moderate to low control measures. In addition, regarding the topic of common indigenous diseases in the target areas, it is worth mentioning that addiction, neurological diseases, skin diseases, and digestive disorders are among the most important and main ones. Regarding the index of appropriate treatment of diseases and common accidents in the study area, the results show that most residents treat themselves with self-medication and the use of common drugs and painkillers to relieve pain. With a definite statistic of more than 96%, there is no room for doubt in this regard, and the main reason for this is the unstable economic situation of households that can not afford to pay for health centers. They feel very helpless regarding primary diseases regarding access to essential medicines for treatment. In oral health surveys, it is worth mentioning that most respondents did not mention the excellent Health of their teeth, which is due to a lack of regular visits to the doctor, while 70.3% of respondents did not see a doctor even once a year for treatment of oral disease. Evidence shows that 90% of disaster deaths worldwide are due to natural disasters, and unfortunately, most of these deaths are due to slums in both developed and developing countries. Poverty causes people to live in places where natural disasters are more likely to occur.
The philosophy of primary health care is that the community's health needs should be met where people live and work, and access to services should be accessible and continuous. Most residents of the target neighborhood do not have continuous and permanent access to primary health care components and always face many problems during life. The most paradoxical issue in the field of suburbanization goes back to citizenship and the services that should be provided by the trustees and organizations to this part of the city. So that despite living in the urban area of Ardabil, there are no plans to provide primary health services to this vulnerable group of society; no provision has been made, considering that Health is an inalienable right of every human being. Therefore, fair distribution of health services and social and economic resources related to this field should be the top priority of trustees.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Primary Health Care
  • Marginalized
  • Ardabil
  • Justice